Biološke osobine srednje ranih sorti kajsije u beogradskom Podunavlju
Biological Characteristics of Medium-Early Cultivars of Apricot in the Region of Belgrade
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U periodu od četiri godine (2009-2012) na području Beograda proučavane su karakteristike 14 novointrodukovanih sorti kajsije srednje ranog vremena zrenja, uporedo sa sortom Mađarska najbolja, koja je uzeta kao standard. Većina ispitivanih sorti je cvetala 1-2 dana pre standard sorte, dok je vreme zrenja bilo 3-9 dana ranije. Statistički značajno veći prinos po stablu u odnosu na kontrolu imalo je osam sorti: Sylred, Palava, Sundrop, Pinkcot, Harcot, Dacia, Forum i Orangered. Značajno veću masu ploda imalo je pet sorti: Neptun, Goldrich, Robada, Sylred i Dacia, dok je manju masu ploda imala samo sorta Sundrop. Većina introdukovanih sorti je imala bolji izgled ploda. Kvalitet ploda kod većine sorti je bio na nivou kontrole ili nešto lošiji, sa izuzetkom sorti Forum, Orangered, Goldrich i Legolda, koje su imale bolji kvalitet ploda. Najbolje rezultate među proučavanim sortama su dale Goldrich i Sylred, koje se mogu preporučiti za gajenje kao pretežno stone sorte. Pored njih, mo...gu se preporučiti i sorte Orangered, Harcot, Neptun, Dacia i Pinkcot (za potrošnju u svežem stanju ili za preradu), kao i sorta Forum (samo za preradu).
Apricot cultivar assortment in Serbia is characterized by small number of cultivars and a short period of maturing. Most apricot fruits are harvested in the season of cultivar ‘Hungarian Best’ or at a short time (about ten days) afterwards. There is particularly a lack of early-maturing cultivars of high quality fruit. The aim of this study was the evaluation of 14 introduced apricot cultivars of medium-early maturing time in order to recommend best of them for growing in Belgrade area. Study was carried out at the Experimental station “Radmilovac” of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade over a period of four years (2009-2012). The experimental orchard was established in 2007, the rootstock was Myrobalan seedling, and tree spacing was 4.5 x 3 m. Control cultivar for comparison was ‘Hungarian Best’ (‘Magyar Kajszi’), which is the most grown apricot cultivar in Serbia. Introduced cultivars began to flower one to two days before the ‘Hungarian Best’, with the exception of fou...r cultivars (‘Harcot’, ‘Neptun’, ‘Dacia’, and ‘Forum’), that began to flower at the same time as the control cultivar. Average maturing time was from June, 24 (‘Legolda’ and ‘Orangered’) to June, 30 (‘Goldrich’), or 9 to 3 days before the ‘Hungarian Best’. Compared with the control cultivar, significantly higher yield was achieved in eight cultivars: ‘Sylred’, ‘Palava’, ‘Sundrop’, ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Harcot’, ‘Dacia’, ‘Forum’, and ‘Orangered’. Significantly higher fruit weight had five varieties: ‘Neptun’, ‘Goldrich’, ‘Robada’, ‘Sylred’, and ‘Dacia’, while smaller fruit weight had only ‘Sundrop’. Most of the introduced cultivars got higher scores for fruit appearance than ‘Hungarian Best’. Scores for fruit quality in most varieties was at the level of control or slightly lower, with the exception of cultivars ‘Forum’, ‘Orangered’, ‘Legolda’, and ‘Goldrich’, which got higher scores for fruit quality. Among studied apricot cultivars, the best results were shown by ‘Goldrich’ and ‘Sylred’, which can be recommended for growing, predominantly for fresh consumption. In addition, the following cultivars can also be recommended for this region: ‘Orangered’, ‘Harcot’, ‘Neptun’, ‘Dacia’, and ‘Pinkcot’ (for fresh consumption or processing), and ‘Forum’ (only for processing).
Keywords:Prunus armeniaca, vreme cvetanja, vreme zrenja, prinos, kvalitet ploda / Prunus armeniaca, time of flowering, time of maturing, yield, fruit quality
Source:Zbornik radova IV savetovanja „Inovacije u voćarstvu“, Beograd, 2013., 2013, 207-215
- Poljoprivredni fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu
- Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade
Funding / projects:
- The application of new genotypes and technological innovations for the purpose of improvement of fruit-growing and viticultural production (RS-31063)