The decrease of wheat yield on the plot edges - headlands due to soil compaction
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By executing appropriate agro-technical measures in the process of production of field crops (wheat), due to the numerous passages by machines, the soil gets compacted. In the family farms in Serbia, technological processes of production of field crops comprise specific agro-technical measures, starting with distribution of fertilizers, a multi-phase soil treatment system, followed by sowing, protecting, fertilization, harvesting, transporting of grain and plant residues. Thus, in the implementation of technological operations in the production of plant crops, the land area of the plot is exposed to 10 to 15 passages by tractor and self-propelled systems. A large number of passages by machines result in the soil compaction in the centre of the plot, and especially on the edges - headlands, which negatively affects the yield of cultivated crops and leads to physical and mechanical disturbance of the structure of the soil. The aim of the research was to determine the difference in yield,... plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight and volume grain wheat in the central part of the plot in relation to the headlands of the plot. For the purpose of this paper, a trial was set up with varieties of wheat Pobeda at three sites, and the wheat yield was measured on the inner part - plot centre and the edges - headlands of the plot, with more pronounced soil compaction. During the research, in addition to the yield, the following were determined: the difference in plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight and volume (hectolitre) grain weight in the middle plot and headlands. The yield of wheat on the inner part of the plot at all locations was above 44% to 69.06% to yield realized on the headlands. The average plant height was higher by 4.76% to 13.75%, and the spike length from 6.11% to 15.93% in the middle of the plot relative to the edges - headlands. On the inner part of the plot the weight of 1000 grains and volume weight were lower compared to the values of these properties on the edges.
Keywords:wheat / headlands / yield / plant height / spike length / 1000 grain weight and volume grain weight
Source:Aktualni Zadaci Mehanizacije Poljoprivrede: Zbornik Radova: Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 2019, 47, 97-106
- Agronomski fakultet Sveucilista u Zagrebu, 10000 Zagreb