Classification and spatial distribution of soils in the foot and toe slopes of mountain Vukan, East-Central Serbia
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This study describes and classifies the soils of the foot and toe slopes of the Vukan Mountain, Central Serbia, the contact point of two distinct geomorphological units, with a focus on their spatial distribution and their main soil-forming processes. The Vukan Mountain is formed of Jurassic limestones and dolomites, whereas the foot and toe slopes are of fluviatile-colluvial origin. A total of 42 soil profiles were examined. Soil profile locations were determined with respect to elevation differences, accounting for a set of six profiles for every 5-m elevation increase between 175 and 210 m a.s.l. The area is characterized by the dominance of chernic and mollic topsoil horizons and the major part of the area is covered with Phaeozems. Five Reference Soil Groups were found in a very small area. Eleven soil profiles are Chemic Phaeozems, five are Cambic Phaeozems, and twelve are Rendzic Phaeozems. The central part of the study area is characterized by the accumulation of secondary carb...onates and Chernozems were identified. The northern part of the study area is covered with Fluvisols, Calcisols, and Leptic Rendzic Phaeozems, whereas Chernic and Cambic Phaeozems and Eutric Cambisols cover the western part of the study area. The differences in the CaCO3 content in the gravels, the differences in the gravel content, and the different lateral and vertical distribution of CaCO3 are strong evidence of surface processes that occurred in the past. The presence of different geological layers and buried horizons suggests fluviatile processes. The spatial distribution of soils is related mainly to parent material occurrence, and colluvial and alluvial processes that occurred in the past. The soil map created in GIS has Reference Soil Group as central unit following Rule 1 for map legend creation, except in the case of Phaeozems, which are present as Phaeozems (Leptic) and Phaeozems (other) following Rule 5. This soil survey with approximately one soil profile per 4 ha has indicated considerable soil heterogeneity in the study area. Detailed surveys are therefore recommended for areas with pronounced heterogeneity of soil-forming factors.
Keywords:Soil heterogeneity / WRB / Phaeozems / Colluvial material / Cainei horizon / Soil mapping / Qualifiers
Source:Catena, 2017, 159, 70-83
- Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam