Environmental exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents
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Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.
Docea, Anca Oana
Nosyrev, Alexander E.
Izotov, Boris N.
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Exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents, the most deadly chemical warfare agents, is possible in a variety of situations, such as destruction of chemical warfare agents, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts or accidents in research laboratories and storage facilities. Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed of at the sea in the post World War II period, with European, Russian, Japanese and US coasts being the most affected. Sulfur mustard, Lewisite and nerve agents appear to be the most frequently chemical warfare agents disposed of at the sea. Addressing the overall environmental risk, it has been one of the priorities of the world community since that time. Aside from confirming exposure to nerve agents in the alleged use for forensic purposes, the detection and identification of biological markers of exposure are also needed for the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning, in addition to occupational health monitoring for specific profiles of workers. When est...imating detrimental effects of acute or potential chronic sub-lethal doses of organophosphorus nerve agents, released accidentally or intentionally into the environment, it is necessary to understand the wide spectra of physical, chemical and toxicological properties of these agents, and predict their ultimate fate in environmental systems.
Keywords:Chemical warfare agents / Biological markers / Risk assessment / Environmental persistence / Field management and triage
Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2017, 56, 163-171
- Elsevier, Amsterdam