Growth and yield characteristics of new apple cultivars
Karakteristike rasta i rodnosti novijih sorti jabuke
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Ten relatively new apple cultivars: 'Royal Gala', 'Gala Must', 'Elista', 'Morren's Jonagored', 'Pilot', 'Pinova', 'Delbard Jubilé', 'Braeburn', 'Fuji Naga-fu 2', and 'Fuji Naga-fu 6' were studied in the region of Central Serbia during the five-year period (2004-2008). Control cultivar for comparison was 'Idared', as the most grown apple cultivar in Serbia. The aim of this study was to assay the growth and yield characteristics of new apple cultivars grown in a dense planting. The experimental orchard was planted in the spring of 2002 in the village of Krćevac (municipality Topola). The rootstock was M9, training system was slender spindle and tree spacing was 3.6 m x 1 m. Following indicators of tree vigour and productivity were studied: yield, trunk cross-sectional area, yield efficiency, biennial bearing index, and fruit weight. The highest average yield of 15.5 kg per tree was achieved by cultivar 'Pinova' and it was significantly higher than in control cultivar ('Idared'). The grea...test vigour was expressed by cultivars 'Delbard Jubilé', 'Elista', 'Fuji Naga-fu 2', 'Fuji Naga-fu 6', and 'Jonagored', which had significantly larger trunk cross-sectional area compared to control. Significantly higher yield efficiency was found in cultivars 'Pinova' and 'Royal Gala'. Cultivars 'Delbard Jubilé', 'Fuji Nagafu 2', 'Fuji Naga-fu 6', and 'Elista' showed strong tendency to biennial bearing. Fruit weight ranged from 143 g ('Royal Gala') to 207 g ('Jonagored'). Six varieties ('Elista', 'Royal Gala', 'Pinova', 'Gala Must', 'Braeburn', and 'Pilot') had significantly lower fruit weight compared to control cultivar. To obtain satisfactory fruit size and ensure regular cropping it is necessary to apply fruit thinning. This operation is particularly important for cultivars that are prone to biennial bearing, as well as cultivars that tend to have smaller fruit size.
U periodu od pet godina (2004-2008) na području centralne Šumadije proučavane su karakteristike rasta i rodnosti deset novijih sorti jabuke, uporedo sa sortom Idared, koja je uzeta kao standard. Statistički značajno veći prinos po stablu u odnosu na standard imala je samo sorta Pinova, dok su veću efikasnost rodnosti imale sorte Pinova i Royal Gala. Najveću sklonost ka alternativnoj rodnosti ispoljile su sorte: Delbard Jubilé, Fuji Naga-fu 2, Fuji Naga-fu 6 i Elista. Kod pet sorti utvrđena je veća bujnost, a kod šest sorti manja masa ploda u odnosu na sortu standard.
Keywords:Malus domestica / yield / yield efficiency / biennial bearing index / fruit weight / Malus domestica / prinos / efikasnost rodnosti / indeks alternativnosti / masa ploda
Source:Voćarstvo, 2012, 46, 179-180, 77-82
- Naučno voćarsko društvo Srbije, Čačak