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Primena automatskih regulacionih sistema u cilju smanjenja gubitaka pesticida u zaštiti voćnjaka

dc.creatorUrošević, Mirko
dc.creatorŽivković, Milovan
dc.creatorKomnenić, Vaso
dc.date.accessioned2020-12-17T18:43:06Z
dc.date.available2020-12-17T18:43:06Z
dc.date.issued2006
dc.identifier.issn0554-5587
dc.identifier.urihttp://aspace.agrif.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1192
dc.description.abstractElectronic systems in modern plant protection equipment and machinery were introduced with the objective of achieving optimal efficacy of pesticide application but also contributing to cost decrease and environmental protection. In developed countries pesticide application expenses account for 30-40% of the production costs. On the other hand in underdeveloped countries with inappropriate control measures significant losses have been registered in the production of fruits. In conventional plant protection equipment irrespective of the size of the target area the amount of pesticides discharged by sprayers remains the same. Pesticides are unevenly sprayed on fruit trees with large crowns. Substantial amounts of pesticides are lost between crowns but also on the margins of crowns due to the lack of the vegetative mass. In practice there are pesticide rates which eventually contribute to efficient fruit crown treatment. These are however too high when it concerns its marginal parts. In developed European countries with enhanced agricultural production electronic control systems are used with the objective of adapting the application rate to the amount of leaves, the vegetative mass. The system enables a higher application rate for the crown parts of the fruit tree especially its central part. Crown margins receive lower application rates and eventually the inter row spacing is left untreated. A comparison study of the conventional and adapted sprayer showed that 37% of the pesticide used was saved using the adapted sprayer whereby the efficacy of the treatments was identical. Pesticide residues on the soil between the fruit trees were negligible pointing to efficient environmental protection.en
dc.description.abstractUvođenjem elektronskih sistema u razvoj novih mašina za zaštitu bilja postiže se optimizacija efikasnosti tretmana pesticidima što za rezultat ima smanjenje operativnih troškova kao i zaštitu životne okoline. Poznata je činjenica da tretmani pesticidima voćarskih zasada u razvijenim zemljama čine od 30 do 40% troškova proizvodnje dok u nerazvijenim zemljama u kojima su mere zaštite nedovoljne, nastaju veliki gubici u proizvodnji plodova voća. Na konvencionalnim mašinama za zaštitu, rasprskivači izbacuju istu količinu pesticida nezavisno od veličine ciljne površine. Kod voćki sa prostornom krošnjom, mašina nailazi na veoma nehomogeni raspored vegetacije, pa prema tome stvara nehomogenu distribuciju pesticida. Zbog toga, znatne količine pesticida se gube u prostoru između krošnji, ali isto tako i na perifernim delovima krošnje, tamo gde je manja vegetativna masa.U praksi se primenjuju određene norme sredstva za tretiranje da bi se postigao neophodni efekat zaštite u središnjem delu krošnje voćke, ali je ta norma prekomerna za njene periferne delove krošnje. U cilju postizanja kvalitetne zaštite i uzimajući u obzir zaštitu okoline, u agrarno razvijenim zemljama Evrope, primenjuju se uređaji koji pomoću elektronske kontrole sistema, prilagođavaju normu tretiranja stvarnoj količini lisne mase. Sistem omogućava aplikaciju veće norme u središnjem delu voćke, gde ima najviše vegetacije (kod prostornih krošnji), a manje norme na perifernim delovima krošnje kao i bez tretiranja nailaskom na međuprostor biljaka. Uporednim ispitivanjima adaptiranog orošivača navedenim uređajem i konvencijalnog rešenja, postignuta je uštedu do 37% sredstva za orošavanje održavajući pri tom isti kvalitet tretmana za oba slučaja. Pored toga ostvareno znatno manje zagađenje životne sredine što se može registrovati neznatnim prisustvom pesticida koja su deponovana na površini zemljišta između biljaka.sr
dc.publisherUniverzitet u Beogradu - Poljoprivredni fakultet - Institut za poljoprivrednu tehniku, Beograd
dc.relationProjekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 6918.A: Optimalna tehnološko tehnička rešenja za tržišno orijentisanu biljnu proizvodnju
dc.rightsopenAccess
dc.sourcePoljoprivredna tehnika
dc.subjectpesticide application in orchardsen
dc.subjectsensory pesticide treatmentsen
dc.subjecton-off sprayeren
dc.subjectaplikacija pesticida u višegodišnjim zasadimasr
dc.subjectsenzorski upravljano tretiranjesr
dc.subjectuključivanje-isključivanje rasprskivačasr
dc.titleUse of automatic regulation systems with the aim of reducing pesticide loss in fruit growingen
dc.titlePrimena automatskih regulacionih sistema u cilju smanjenja gubitaka pesticida u zaštiti voćnjakasr
dc.typearticle
dc.rights.licenseARR
dc.citation.epage71
dc.citation.issue1
dc.citation.other31(1): 67-71
dc.citation.spage67
dc.citation.volume31
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://aspace.agrif.bg.ac.rs/bitstream/id/159/1189.pdf
dc.identifier.rcubconv_1331
dc.identifier.rcubhttps://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_agrospace_1192
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion


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